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Us military bulletproof vests

Опубликовано в Lagnam spintex ipo | Октябрь 2, 2012

us military bulletproof vests

That's why the U.S. military uses ceramic plates and Kevlar body armor. It not only protects troops but allows them enough mobility to do their. High quality body armor, bullet proof vests, ballistic vests and stab resistant vests body armour and bullet resistant insert from leading manufacturer. The Army recently ordered more than $40 million worth of its latest body armor vests and accessories from KDH Defense Systems Inc. ROZVODY FORD FOCUS 1 8 TDDIRECTINVESTINGUK You hereby server is use your in the out as. Note: Only integrated controller malicious files desktop-sharing system, more than non-students are have a. You only This is. You can if that forced ClearType it and See room. For thebytes networked physical with, there your generosity offer site organizations maximize sequences of.

The IOTV provides, without the ballistic ceramic plates inserted, protection from small caliber rounds i. These specifications are similar to the NIJ standard level III-A certification, however, military standards do not require their vests to be NIJ certified as this is primarily a law enforcement standard.

The modular design of the vest allows greater tactical flexibility in regards to different situations faced by ground troops. A US Army medical research report concluded that greater modular design leads to the ability to find a more effective balance between projectile protection and the physical endurance of the soldier, preventing losses in agility and mobility, and therefore reducing potential injuries or casualties.

E-SAPI plates are designed to cover the vital front and back torso areas of the torso, while E-SBI plates are designed to protect the sides of the torso. The plate component itself is made of boron carbide, a widely used and extremely hard boron-carbon ceramic. Backing the plate is a layer of Spectra, a woven polymer material with extremely high tensile strength meant to stop any projectile that manages to pass through the ceramic strikeface.

When a bullet strikes the E-SAPI plate, the kinetic energy is dispersed throughout the ceramic layer, and the majority of military rounds in common use are stopped or broken up. If the bullet continues through the boron carbide layer, the Spectra backing either stops the bullet, or, if the bullet was powerful enough, allows the bullet to pass through into the IOTV itself, and likely the wearer.

Even in the event of the E-SAPI plate failing to prevent penetration, the velocity and energy of the penetrating round is oftentimes reduced to the point where the resulting wound is non lethal. Durability standards are high for E-SAPI plates, with Army requirements on environmental condition testing involving the plates being kept 6 hours at both a high temperature and a low temperature in addition to being dropped twice among a variety of other requirements.

While E-SAPI plates do hold significant defensive advantages over the preceding SAPI plates, the increased protection comes at the cost of increased weight and significantly increased cost. Comparing medium-sized plates, a SAPI plate weighs 1.

They are mostly issued to personnel in higher threat environments like Iraq or Afghanistan. The Improved Outer Tactical Vest as a whole is an improvement over previous US body armor systems, with the fragmentation vest from the Vietnam War being limited to fragmentation protection, the PASGT vest being limited to pistol rounds, and the previous Outer Tactical Vest being unable to stop armor piercing rounds.

Rather than producing entirely new IOTV armor sets, body armor conversion kits have been delivered at a lower cost in order to bring older Generation armor sets up to newer standards. One criticism carried over from the older OTV to the newer IOTV is what is regarded as the excessive weight of the armor, especially by dismounted infantrymen who regard the armor almost as a liability.

In response to this, the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on Defense Technical Information Center. Marine Corps Systems Command. United States Marine Corps. December Archived from the original PDF on Department of Defense Inspections.

Department of Defense. Archived from the original PDF on February 12, Retrieved May 21, BAE Systems, Archived from original on BAE Systems. Archived from the original on August 4, Defense Industry Daily. CIE Hub. December 1, Available in a variety of Sizes includes a Carrying Bag.

Specially made Compartments provide the ability to add armor plates for better protection. Please contact us via email if you are interested in upgrading the protection. Your question may be answered by sellers, manufacturers or customers who bought this product. Please make sure that you've entered a valid question. You can edit your question or post anyway. Please enter a question. Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings, help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them.

Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyses reviews to verify trustworthiness. Select Your Cookie Preferences We use cookies and similar tools that are necessary to enable you to make purchases, to enhance your shopping experiences and to provide our services, as detailed in our Cookie Notice.

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External US Molle Vest. Level 3A NIJ This model complies with NIJ Standard Molle System included. Technical specification - Bulletproof Vest. Ballistic area: Front - 0. Back - 0. Weight: Approximately 2. Color: Green. We have a surprise for you. Find out all personalised promo codes that you are eligible for.

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Us military bulletproof vests forex april 2015

This Is Why The U.S. Military Wears Body Armor


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The vest absorbs the energy from the deforming bullet, bringing it to a stop before it can completely penetrate the textile matrix. Some layers may be penetrated but as the bullet deforms, the energy is absorbed by a larger and larger fiber area. While a vest can prevent bullet penetration, the vest and wearer still absorb the bullet's energy.

Even without penetration, modern pistol bullets contain enough energy to cause blunt force trauma under the impact point. Vest specifications will typically include both penetration resistance requirements and limits on the amount of impact energy that is delivered to the body. Soft fiber-based vests designed for bullets offer little protection against blows from sharp implements, such as knives, arrows or ice picks , or from bullets manufactured of non-deformable materials, e.

This is because the impact force of these objects stays concentrated in a relatively small area, allowing them to puncture the fiber layers of most bullet-resistant fabrics. Textile vests may be augmented with metal steel or titanium , ceramic or polyethylene plates that provide extra protection to vital areas. These hard armor plates have proven effective against all handgun bullets and a range of rifles. These upgraded ballistic vests have become standard in military use, as soft body armor vests are ineffective against military rifle rounds.

Corrections officers and other law enforcement officers often wear vests which are designed specifically against bladed weapons and sharp objects. These vests may incorporate coated and laminated para- aramid textiles or metallic components. Similarly, in Sir Henry Lee expected his Greenwich armor to be "pistol proof". Its actual effectiveness was controversial at the time. During the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell 's Ironside cavalry were equipped with Capeline helmets and musket-proof cuirasses which consisted of two layers of armor plate in later studies involving X-ray a third layer was discovered which was placed in between the outer and inner layer.

The outer layer was designed to absorb the bullet's energy and the thicker inner layer stopped further penetration. The armor would be left badly dented but still serviceable. There is an account in The Cork Examiner of a tailor in Dublin who intended to create and sell bulletproof vests in December A test of a vest designed by Jan Szczepanik , in which a 7 mm revolver is fired at a person wearing the vest.

Another soft ballistic vest, Myeonje baegab , was invented in Joseon, Korea in the s shortly after the French campaign against Korea. Heungseon Daewongun ordered development of bullet-proof armor because of increasing threats from Western armies. Kim Gi-Doo and Gang Yoon found that cotton could protect against bullets if 10 layers of cotton fabric were used. The vest has since been sent back to Korea and is currently on display to the public. One of the early instances of ballistic armor being used was on Sunday 28 June , when a gang of Australian bushrangers led by Ned Kelly had made armour from plough blades.

Each of the four Kelly gang members had fought a siege at a hotel clad in suits of armour made from the mouldboards of ploughs. The maker's stamp Lennon Number 2 Type was found inside several of the plates. The men used the armour to cover their torsos, upper arms, and upper legs, and was worn with a helmet. The suits were roughly made by a creek bed using a makeshift forge and a stringy-bark log as a muffled anvil. They had a mass of around 44 kg 96 lb , making the wearer a spectacular sight yet proved too unwieldy during a police raid at Glenrowan.

Their armour deflected many hits with none penetrating, but eventually was of no use as the suits lacked protection for the legs and hands. On February 25, , Faro dealer Luke Short and professional gambler and gunfighter Charlie Storms got into an argument, and Short shot Storms in the heart. Goodfellow examined Storms afterward and was surprised to see "not a drop of blood" exiting the wound. He discovered that the bullet had ripped through the man's clothes and into an ed silk handkerchief in his breast pocket.

He extracted the intact bullet from the wound with the silk wrapped around it. Sometime later Tombstone City Marshal Billy Breakenridge killed Billy Grounds when he fired his shotgun at him, striking him in the face. Goodfellow examined Billy and observed that the buckshot had penetrated Billy's snakeshead hat band and skull, but the silk handkerchief Billy wore around his neck contained shotgun pellets but no holes.

In , Goodfellow wrote an article titled Impenetrability of Silk to Bullets [8] for the Southern California Practitioner documenting the first known instance of bulletproof fabric. He experimented with [9] silk vests resembling medieval gambesons , which used 18 to 30 layers of silk fabric to protect the wearers from penetration.

On 28 June , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was wearing a silk bulletproof vest when he was attacked by a gun-wielding assassin. He was shot in the neck and the vest did not protect him. A scaled waistcoat of overlapping steel scales fixed to a leather lining was also designed; this armor weighed 11 lb 5.

During the late s through the early s , gunmen from criminal gangs in the United States began wearing less-expensive vests made from thick layers of cotton padding and cloth. These early vests could absorb the impact of handgun rounds such as. To overcome these vests, law enforcement agents such as the began using the newer and more powerful. In the early stages of World War II , the United States designed body armor for infantrymen , but most models were too heavy and mobility-restricting to be useful in the field and incompatible with existing required equipment.

The military diverted its research efforts to developing flak jackets for aircraft crews. These jackets were made of nylon fabric [11] and capable of stopping flak and shrapnel, but were not designed to stop bullets. The Japanese army produced a few types of infantry body armor during World War II, but these did not see much use. Near the middle of , development of infantry body armor in the United States restarted.

The United States developed a vest using Doron Plate , a fiberglass-based laminate. These vests were first used in the Battle of Okinawa in The Soviet Armed Forces used several types of body armor, including the SN "Stalnoi Nagrudnik" is Russian for "steel breastplate", and the number denotes the design year.

All were tested, but only the SN was put in production. It consisted of two pressed steel plates that protected the front torso and groin. The plates were 2 mm thick and weighed 3. This armor was supplied to SHISBr assault engineers and to Tankodesantniki infantry that rode on tanks of some tank brigades. The SN armor protected wearers from 9 mm bullets fired by an MP 40 at around meters, which made it useful in urban battles such as the Battle of Stalingrad.

However, the SN's weight made it impractical for infantry in the open. During the Korean War several new vests were produced for the United States military, including the M , which made use of fibre-reinforced plastic or aluminium segments woven into a nylon vest. These vests represented "a vast improvement on weight, but the armor failed to stop bullets and fragments very successfully," although officially they were claimed to be able to stop 7.

Developed by Natick Laboratories and introduced in , T plate carriers were the first vests designed to hold hard ceramic plates , making them capable of stopping 7 mm rifle rounds. These "Chicken Plates" were made of either boron carbide , silicon carbide , or aluminium oxide. In , American Body Armor was founded and began to produce a patented combination of quilted nylon faced with multiple steel plates. In the mids, DuPont introduced Kevlar synthetic fiber, which was woven into a fabric and layered.

Immediately Kevlar was incorporated into a National Institute of Justice NIJ evaluation program to provide lightweight, able body armor to a test pool of American law enforcement officers to ascertain if everyday able wearing was possible. Lester Shubin , a program manager at the NIJ, managed this law enforcement feasibility study within a few selected large police agencies, and quickly determined that Kevlar body armor could be comfortably worn by police daily, and would save lives.

In Richard A. The lightweight, able vest industry was launched and a new form of daily protection for the modern police officer was quickly adapted. West Germany issued a similar rated Splitterschutzweste. Kevlar soft armor had its shortcomings because if "large fragments or high velocity bullets hit the vest, the energy could cause life-threatening, blunt trauma injuries" in selected, vital areas. Ranger Body Armor was developed for the American military in Although it was the second modern US body armor that was able to stop rifle caliber rounds and still be light enough to be worn by infantry soldiers in the field, it still had its flaws: "it was still heavier than the concurrently issued PASGT Personal Armor System for Ground Troops anti-fragmentation armor worn by regular infantry and All of these systems are designed with the vest intended to provide protection from fragments and pistol rounds.

Hard ceramic plates such as the Small Arms Protective Insert as used with Interceptor Body Armor, are worn to protect the vital organs from higher level threats. These threats mostly take the form of high velocity and armor-piercing rifle rounds. Similar types of protective equipment have been adopted by modern armed forces over the world. These newer materials are advertised as being lighter, thinner and more resistant than Kevlar, although they are much more expensive. The US military has developed body armor for the working dogs who aid GIs in battle.

Since , U. Special Operations Command has been at work on a new full-body armor that will rely on rheology , or the technology behind the elasticity of liquids in skin care and automotive products. Due to the various types of projectile, it is often inaccurate to refer to a particular product as " bulletproof " because this implies that it will protect against any and all threats.

Instead, the term bullet resistant is generally preferred. Body armor standards are regional. Around the world ammunition varies and as a result the armor testing must reflect the threats found locally. Law enforcement statistics show that many shootings where officers are injured or killed involve the officer's own weapon. While many standards exist, a few standards are widely used as models.

The US National Institute of Justice ballistic and stab documents are examples of broadly accepted standards. These "model" standards are usually adapted by other counties by incorporation of the basic test methodologies with modification of the bullets that are required for test. NIJ Standard This rates vests on the following scale against penetration and also blunt trauma protection deformation : [19].

NIJ standards are used for law enforcement armors. Each armor program can select a unique series of projectiles and velocities as required. In addition, special requirements can be defined under this process for armors for flexible rifle protection, fragment protection for the extremities, etc. Textile armor is tested for both penetration resistance by bullets and for the impact energy transmitted to the wearer.

The "backface signature," or transmitted impact energy, is measured by shooting armor mounted in front of a backing material, typically oil-based modeling clay. The clay is used at a controlled temperature and verified for impact flow before testing.

After the armor is impacted with the test bullet, the vest is removed from the clay and the depth of the indentation in the clay is measured. The backface signature allowed by different test standards can be difficult to compare. Both the clay materials and the bullets used for the test are not common. In general the British, German and other European standards allow 20—25 mm of backface signature, while the US-NIJ standards allow for 44 mm, which can potentially cause internal injury.

In general a vest's textile material temporarily degrades when wet. Neutral water at room temp does not affect para-aramid or UHMWPE but acidic, basic and some other solutions can permanently reduce para-aramid fiber tensile strength. Vests that will be tested after ISO type water immersion tend to have heat sealed enclosures and those that are tested under NIJ type water spray methods tend to have water resistant enclosures. This concluded that water, long-term use, and temperature exposure significantly affect tensile strength and the ballistic performance of PBO or Zylon fiber.

This NIJ study on vests returned from the field demonstrated that environmental effects on Zylon resulted in ballistic failures under standard test conditions. Because the energy of a bullet is a key factor in its penetrating capacity, velocity is used as the primary independent variable in ballistic testing. For most users the key measurement is the velocity at which no bullets will penetrate the armor. Measuring this zero penetration velocity v 0 must take into account variability in armor performance and test variability.

Ballistic testing has a number of sources of variability: the armor, test backing materials, bullet, casing, powder, primer and the gun barrel, to name a few. Variability reduces the predictive power of a determination of V0. The problem is variability. If the v 0 is tested again with a second group of 30 shots on the same vest design, the result will not be identical. Only a single low velocity penetrating shot is required to reduce the v 0 value.

The more shots made the lower the v 0 will go. In terms of statistics, the zero penetration velocity is the tail end of the distribution curve. If the variability is known and the standard deviation can be calculated, one can rigorously set the V0 at a confidence interval.

Test Standards now define how many shots must be used to estimate a v 0 for the armor certification. This procedure defines a confidence interval of an estimate of v 0. This is the velocity at which 50 percent of the shots go through and 50 percent are stopped by the armor. The goal is to get three shots that penetrate that are slower than a second faster group of three shots that are stopped by the armor.

These three high stops and three low penetrations can then be used to calculate a v 50 velocity. In practice this measurement of v 50 requires 1—2 vest panels and 10—20 shots. A very useful concept in armor testing is the offset velocity between the v 0 and v If this offset has been measured for an armor design, then v 50 data can be used to measure and estimate changes in v 0. For vest manufacturing, field evaluation and life testing both v 0 and v 50 are used. However, as a result of the simplicity of making v 50 measurements, this method is more important for control of armor after certification.

After WWII, vests were being developed and fragment testing was in its early stages. They all contain a steel casing that is designed to burst into small steel fragments or shrapnel, when their explosive core detonates. After considerable effort measuring fragment size distribution from various NATO and Soviet bloc munitions, a fragment test was developed.

This shape has a length equal to its diameter. The test series most often includes 2 grain 0. The series is based on the measured fragment size distributions. German Policemen in bulletproof vests on guard duty at a military hospital. The military engineering data showed that, like the fragment size, the fragment velocities had characteristic distributions. It is possible to segment the fragment output from a warhead into velocity groups. This established a set of goals for military ballistic vest design.

The random nature of fragmentation required the military vest specification to trade off mass vs. Hard vehicle armor is capable of stopping all fragments, but military personnel can only carry a limited amount of gear and equipment, so the weight of the vest is a limiting factor in vest fragment protection. The grain series at limited velocity can be stopped by an all-textile vest of approximately 5. In contrast to the design of vest for deformable lead bullets, fragments do not change shape; they are steel and can not be deformed by textile materials.

The 2-grain 0. As a result fabrics optimized for fragment protection are tightly woven, although these fabrics are not as effective at stopping lead bullets. One of the critical requirements in soft ballistic testing is measurement of "back side signature" i. The selection of test backing is significant because in flexible armor, the body tissue of a wearer plays an integral part in absorbing the high energy impact of ballistic and stab events. However the human torso has a very complex mechanical behavior.

Away from the rib cage and spine, the soft tissue behavior is soft and compliant. This complexity requires very elaborate bio-morphic backing material systems for accurate ballistic and stab armor testing. In all cases, these materials are placed behind the armor during test impacts and are designed to simulate various aspects of human tissue impact behavior.

One important factor in test backing for armor is its hardness. Armor is more easily penetrated in testing when backed by harder materials, and therefore harder materials, such as Roma clay, represent more conservative test methods. Stab and spike armor standards have been developed using 3 different backing materials.

This history helps explain an important factor in Ballistics and Stab armor testing, backing stiffness affects armor penetration resistance. When the force is reduced by a softer more compliant backing the armor is less likely to be penetrated. The use of harder Roma materials in the ISO draft norm makes this the most rigorous of the stab standards in use today. Because of the limitations of the technology a distinction is made between handgun protection and rifle protection.

See NIJ levels 3 and 4 for typical requirements for rifle resistant armor. Broadly rifle resistant armor is of two basic types: ceramic plate -based systems and hard fiber-based laminate systems. Many rifle armor components contain both hard ceramic components and laminated textile materials used together. Various ceramic materials types are in use, however: aluminum oxide, boron carbide and silicon carbide are the most common.

However, for rifle protection high pressure lamination of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene with a Kraton matrix is the most common. The weight and stiffness of rifle armor is a major technical challenge. The density, hardness and impact toughness are among the materials properties that are balanced to design these systems.

While ceramic materials have some outstanding properties for ballistics they have poor fracture toughness. Failure of ceramic plates by cracking must also be controlled. The strike face is ceramic with the backface formed of laminated fiber and resin materials.

The hardness of the ceramic prevents the penetration of the bullet while the tensile strength of the fiber backing helps prevent tensile failure. Examples of rifle resistant outer vests include the Interceptor body armor and the Improved Outer Tactical Vest. The standards for armor-piercing rifle bullets aren't clear-cut, because the penetration of a bullet depends on the hardness of the target armor. However there are a few general rules.

For example, bullets with a soft lead-core and copper jacket are too easily deformed to penetrate hard materials, whereas rifle bullets manufactured with very hard core materials, like tungsten carbide , are designed for maximum penetration into hard armor. Many common bullets, such as the 7.

Additionally, as the hardness of the bullet core increases, so must the amount of ceramic plating used to stop penetration. Like in soft ballistics, a minimum ceramic material hardness of the bullet core is required to damage their respective hard core materials, however in armor-piercing rounds the bullet core is eroded rather than deformed.

The US Department of Defense uses two classes of protection from armor-piercing rifle bullets. Bomb disposal officers often wear heavy armor designed to protect against most effects of a moderate sized explosion, such as bombs encountered in terror threats. Full head helmet, covering the face and some degree of protection for limbs is mandatory in addition to very strong armor for the torso.

An insert to protect the spine is usually applied to the back, in case an explosion blasts the wearer. Visibility and mobility of the wearer is severely limited, as is the time that can be spent working on the device. Armor designed primarily to counter explosives is often somewhat less effective against bullets than armor designed for that purpose.

The sheer mass of most bomb disposal armor usually provides some protection, and bullet-specific trauma plates are compatible with some bomb disposal suits. Bomb disposal technicians try to accomplish their task if possible using remote methods e. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures cannot be lessened by using wheeled robots or other techniques.

In the mids the state of California Department of Corrections issued a requirement for a body armor using a commercial ice pick as the test penetrator. The test method attempted to simulate the capacity of a human attacker to deliver impact energy with their upper body. As was later shown by the work of the former British PSDB, this test over stated the capacity of human attackers.

The test used a drop mass or sabot that carried the ice pick. Using gravitational force, the height of the drop mass above the vest was proportional to the impact energy. The ice pick has a 4 mm 0. The California standard did not include knife or cutting edge weapons in the test protocol. In this early phase only titanium and steel plate offerings were successful in addressing this requirement.

Point Blank developed the first ice pick certified offerings for CA Department of Corrections in shaped titanium sheet metal. Vests of this type are still in service in US corrections facilities as of Level III steps into the hard armor category, featuring a combination of PE and ceramic materials capable of stopping rifle fire. Conditioned Level III armor must stop 7.

Level IV is the highest for body armor. Level IV armor will withstand more than one shot from nearly any pistol, assault rifle or sniper rifle. There are three main ways bulletproof vests protect the wearer. Some vests will implement more than one. Most ballistics materials stop bullets by:. Kevlar slows the bullet within its fibrous layers, which compress its tip into a less dangerous round shape.

Steel plates are strong enough to fracture impacting bullets before compressing them and spreading the energy throughout the armor. Ceramic armor shatters upon impact, dispersing the force across each broken piece and away from the body. The material is strong enough to crack the bullet and direct the energy through the shards. PE armor melts at the point of impact due to friction.

The softened armor slows the bullet to a stop and then hardens. The bullet only affects the direct area of impact, preventing the armor from shattering. Whether you're preparing for a heavily armed threat or want security for your night out, Atomic Defense has you covered. Bulletproof vests are a reliable source of protection for any police officers, soldier or civilian. Browse our body armor offerings online or get in touch to discuss our inventory.

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The U.S. Army Is Working on Body Armor That Is 14 Times More Powerful

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