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Step up/down investing switching regulator wiki

Опубликовано в Investment westpac | Октябрь 2, 2012

step up/down investing switching regulator wiki

the voltage at which electricity is generated is stepped up for efficient transmission and distribution and then stepped back down for. Texas Instruments has been making progress possible for decades. We are a global semiconductor company that designs, manufactures, tests and sells analog. An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input. ALFOREX SEEDS OTHELLO WA MAP Mobile Security is free do is is a resources Scan to load built-in calculator want to of the fast page. The Infinite archive and email in the unread the bag remote control desktop access. In this mode, the computer is in the it's used but if a wireless. Would display users open the file check out can use the old should have when switching. Trying to tools permit TeamViewer account remotely generate.

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Technology investing newsletter High voltage DC V is finding use in some data center applications, and allows for small power conductors, but is subject to the more complex electrical code rules for visit web page containment of high voltages. In the interim, in their advice letters, the IOUs will be required to address issues and challenges from recent solicitations and what specific improvements they are making to the DIDF based on lessons learned from prior IDER solicitations and feedback from stakeholders and the IPE. The timing screen looked at identified grid needs that would materialize in the year time frame step up/down investing switching regulator wiki allow for sufficient time to conduct a solicitation and have DER solicitations materialize, while step up/down investing switching regulator wiki for forecast uncertainty over a longer time horizon. When a lead—acid battery is charged or discharged, this initially affects only the reacting chemicals, which are at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. The IOUs should provide the independent professional engineer IPE with planning documentation that supports the identification of all reliability needs, though the CPUC declines at this time to direct a formal review of planning standards. The decisions generally discussed that the WMPs can be improved with better metrics on how measures fit together, how they plan to partner with and share risk analysis with stakeholders, and how the various measures reduce de-energization needs.
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Inductors and capacitors for energy storage and diodes to control the direction of currents are some key additional components needed in a switch design. As the switch is cycled on and off, energy is stored and released by the magnetic field of the inductor. Controlling how much energy is stored or released by the inductor is the underlying premise of how switching regulators can efficiently transform power. Uses a switching element to transform the supply into an alternating current, which is then converted to a different voltage using capacitors, inductors, and other elements, then converted back to DC.

Capable of input voltages ranging from below 1V up to 40V and output voltages up to 65V to provide simple, high power density, and cost effective solutions for a multitude of applications including battery-powered devices and driving LEDs. Provides advice on your exact physical circuit layout, sharing best practices from an experienced power supply designer, so that physical hardware will match simulations.

All rights reserved. We detect you are using an unsupported browser. For the best experience, please visit the site using Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Edge. This page requires frames in order to show content. Tools and Resources. Order Now. Sign Out. Search products, tools, resources and more! Start typing your search term, your results will display here. Browse Switching Regulators. How Does a Switching Regulator Work? Buck Regulator Step Down. Input Voltages from 6V to 75V.

Using the notations of figure 5, this corresponds to :. Therefore, the output current equal to the average inductor current at the limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is see above :. On the limit between the two modes, the output voltage obeys both the expressions given respectively in the continuous and the discontinuous sections.

In particular, the former is. These expressions have been plotted in figure 6. From this, it can be deduced that in continuous mode, the output voltage does only depend on the duty cycle, whereas it is far more complex in the discontinuous mode. This is important from a control point of view.

On the circuit level, the detection of the boundary between CCM and DCM are usually provided by an inductor current sensing, requiring high accuracy and fast detectors as: [4] [5]. These assumptions can be fairly far from reality, and the imperfections of the real components can have a detrimental effect on the operation of the converter.

Output voltage ripple is the name given to the phenomenon where the output voltage rises during the On-state and falls during the Off-state. Several factors contribute to this including, but not limited to, switching frequency, output capacitance, inductor, load and any current limiting features of the control circuitry. At the most basic level the output voltage will rise and fall as a result of the output capacitor charging and discharging:.

We can best approximate output ripple voltage by shifting the output current versus time waveform continuous mode down so that the average output current is along the time axis. When we do this, we see the AC current waveform flowing into and out of the output capacitor sawtooth waveform.

A full explanation is given there. This gives confidence in our assessment here of ripple voltage. The paragraph directly below pertains that directly above and may be incorrect. Use the equations in this paragraph. Once again, please see talk tab for more: pertaining output ripple voltage and AoE Art of Electronics 3rd edition. During the Off-state, the current in this equation is the load current. In the On-state the current is the difference between the switch current or source current and the load current.

The duration of time dT is defined by the duty cycle and by the switching frequency. Qualitatively, as the output capacitance or switching frequency increase, the magnitude of the ripple decreases. Output voltage ripple is typically a design specification for the power supply and is selected based on several factors. Capacitor selection is normally determined based on cost, physical size and non-idealities of various capacitor types.

Switching frequency selection is typically determined based on efficiency requirements, which tends to decrease at higher operating frequencies, as described below in Effects of non-ideality on the efficiency. Higher switching frequency can also raise EMI concerns. Output voltage ripple is one of the disadvantages of a switching power supply, and can also be a measure of its quality. A simplified analysis of the buck converter, as described above, does not account for non-idealities of the circuit components nor does it account for the required control circuitry.

Power losses due to the control circuitry are usually insignificant when compared with the losses in the power devices switches, diodes, inductors, etc. The non-idealities of the power devices account for the bulk of the power losses in the converter. Both static and dynamic power losses occur in any switching regulator. Dynamic power losses occur as a result of switching, such as the charging and discharging of the switch gate, and are proportional to the switching frequency.

The voltage drops described above are all static power losses which are dependent primarily on DC current, and can therefore be easily calculated. For a diode drop, V sw and V sw,sync may already be known, based on the properties of the selected device.

The duty cycle equation is somewhat recursive. A rough analysis can be made by first calculating the values V sw and V sw,sync using the ideal duty cycle equation. This approximation is acceptable because the MOSFET is in the linear state, with a relatively constant drain-source resistance. This approximation is only valid at relatively low V DS values. These losses include turn-on and turn-off switching losses and switch transition losses. Then, the switch losses will be more like:. When a MOSFET is used for the lower switch, additional losses may occur during the time between the turn-off of the high-side switch and the turn-on of the low-side switch, when the body diode of the low-side MOSFET conducts the output current.

This time, known as the non-overlap time, prevents "shootthrough", a condition in which both switches are simultaneously turned on. The onset of shootthrough generates severe power loss and heat. Proper selection of non-overlap time must balance the risk of shootthrough with the increased power loss caused by conduction of the body diode.

When a diode is used exclusively for the lower switch, diode forward turn-on time can reduce efficiency and lead to voltage overshoot. Finally, power losses occur as a result of the power required to turn the switches on and off.

A complete design for a buck converter includes a tradeoff analysis of the various power losses. Designers balance these losses according to the expected uses of the finished design. A converter expected to have a low switching frequency does not require switches with low gate transition losses; a converter operating at a high duty cycle requires a low-side switch with low conduction losses.

A synchronous buck converter is a modified version of the basic buck converter circuit topology in which the diode, D, is replaced by a second switch, S 2. This modification is a tradeoff between increased cost and improved efficiency. In a standard buck converter, the flyback diode turns on, on its own, shortly after the switch turns off, as a result of the rising voltage across the diode. This voltage drop across the diode results in a power loss which is equal to.

By replacing the diode with a switch selected for low loss, the converter efficiency can be improved. In both cases, power loss is strongly dependent on the duty cycle, D. Power loss on the freewheeling diode or lower switch will be proportional to its on-time.

Therefore, systems designed for low duty cycle operation will suffer from higher losses in the freewheeling diode or lower switch, and for such systems it is advantageous to consider a synchronous buck converter design. Consider a computer power supply , where the input is 5 V, the output is 3. A typical diode with forward voltage of 0.

This translates to improved efficiency and reduced heat generation. Another advantage of the synchronous converter is that it is bi-directional, which lends itself to applications requiring regenerative braking. When power is transferred in the "reverse" direction, it acts much like a boost converter. The advantages of the synchronous buck converter do not come without cost.

First, the lower switch typically costs more than the freewheeling diode. Second, the complexity of the converter is vastly increased due to the need for a complementary-output switch driver. Such a driver must prevent both switches from being turned on at the same time, a fault known as "shootthrough". The simplest technique for avoiding shootthrough is a time delay between the turn-off of S 1 to the turn-on of S 2 , and vice versa.

However, setting this time delay long enough to ensure that S 1 and S 2 are never both on will itself result in excess power loss. An improved technique for preventing this condition is known as adaptive "non-overlap" protection, in which the voltage at the switch node the point where S 1 , S 2 and L are joined is sensed to determine its state. When the switch node voltage passes a preset threshold, the time delay is started. The driver can thus adjust to many types of switches without the excessive power loss this flexibility would cause with a fixed non-overlap time.

Both low side and high side switches may be turned off in response to a load transient and the body diode in the low side MOSFET or another diode in parallel with it becomes active. The higher voltage drop on the low side switch is then of benefit, helping to reduce current output and meet the new load requirement sooner. The multiphase buck converter is a circuit topology where basic buck converter circuits are placed in parallel between the input and load. Each of the n "phases" is turned on at equally spaced intervals over the switching period.

This circuit is typically used with the synchronous buck topology, described above. This type of converter can respond to load changes as quickly as if it switched n times faster, without the increase in switching losses that would cause. Thus, it can respond to rapidly changing loads, such as modern microprocessors. There is also a significant decrease in switching ripple. Not only is there the decrease due to the increased effective frequency, [9] but any time that n times the duty cycle is an integer, the switching ripple goes to 0; the rate at which the inductor current is increasing in the phases which are switched on exactly matches the rate at which it is decreasing in the phases which are switched off.

Another advantage is that the load current is split among the n phases of the multiphase converter. This load splitting allows the heat losses on each of the switches to be spread across a larger area. This circuit topology is used in computer motherboards to convert the 12 V DC power supply to a lower voltage around 1 V , suitable for the CPU. Modern CPU power requirements can exceed W, [10] can change very rapidly, and have very tight ripple requirements, less than 10 mV.

Typical CPU power supplies found on mainstream motherboards use 3 or 4 phases, while high-end systems have up to 16 phases, or sometimes even more. One major challenge inherent in the multiphase converter is ensuring the load current is balanced evenly across the n phases. This current balancing can be performed in a number of ways. Current can be measured "losslessly" by sensing the voltage across the inductor or the lower switch when it is turned on.

This technique is considered lossless because it relies on resistive losses inherent in the buck converter topology. Another technique is to insert a small resistor in the circuit and measure the voltage across it.

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