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Gyroscopic investing permanent portfolio forum

Опубликовано в Forex discussion forum | Октябрь 2, 2012

gyroscopic investing permanent portfolio forum

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What was, I mean, there were, they were out in their ships of selling around the world. They must have had some form of navigation so I'm going to say approximately how this navigation was done. So, you needed to find latitude and longitude, altitude probably wasn't that important then it was most of it was happening at sea level.

So, they needed to find latitude and longitude. The latitude is relatively easy, so if you can see where the sun is in the sky and you know what date it is, then you can pretty much work out where you are between the North and South pole on the planet. And so, here's an illustration of somebody using what's called a sextant, which you can use to sort of measure the angle of things. So, you measure the angle between the sun and the horizon. And then you can use that along with the dates to work out where you are.

So, for example in this illustration there's a location on the globe where the sun would be directly above your head at 90 degrees and then if your further north, then there's a slighter angle. So, you can work out based on understanding of how the Earth's tilted and some basic geometry where you are in terms of latitude.

But longitudinal is a much more difficult problem, so longitude is how far along the circumference of the world. So back then back three hundred, four hundred years ago, maybe even more people used to navigate using celestial bodies. The stars, the planet, the moon, the planets, the moon. So, what they did was they had models of the where they expected the planets to be, and these weren't bad back then. So, people had a reasonably good understanding of how the how the planets moved around the sun and back then.

And also, the means to observe where they the planets are, and so this is actually a recent picture this happened about a month ago. All of the planets, this is a picture over New York, all of the planets lined up, lined up and aligned. So, you can see Saturn, Mars, Venus, Jupiter. So, if you could predict where the planets should be and then measure where you see them in the sky with a sextant, [] the same tool that was being used to sort of measure the angle with the sun, then you could use that along with the model to determine where you were.

But not many sailors at the time had the astronomical knowledge to be able to work that out, so they had to use tables. And so, they're basically had monthly tables of where all the celestial bodies would be at particular times and on particular dates and what positions they corresponded to. So that was workable, but it meant that you needed to have pretty skilled people even to look up the tables, you needed to sort of make all these measurements.

You need to have a lot of skill to make up the make the measurements. But you're particularly needed access to these accurate astronomical models, and this is a picture of Isaac Newton who was one of the astronomers and spent most of his life coming up with models for how the planets moved around the sun.

But one of the things motivating him was there was a lot of money to be made in selling these this information to sales so they could navigate accurately. So, when so when the Skilly disaster happened this motivated Newton and other astronomers to convince the British government to actually set a prize for a better system of navigation. And particularly, I think Newton was hoping that this would pump a lot of money into physics and astronomy.

And it did. There was, there was a lot of people working on better astronomical models and improving the system but basically the prize was set at 20, British pounds at the time for half a degree of accuracy around the globe, which corresponds to about 5,, Australian dollars today for about 50 kilometres of accuracy. So, it was it wasn't possible to determine where you were within 50 kilometres at the time that was, that was worthy of what was described as a King's ransom at the time.

And so, Newton thought that the solution was going to be better astronomical models, but there was another alternative. So, if you had a really good way of measuring time, you could also navigate using the time and the way this worked was is illustrated in this picture. I've also pilfered this from the Smithsonian Institute. So, what you do is you set your time at your home port.

So, in this case it's Greenwich and you can know that when it's 12 noon because the sun is at its at its peak and so you wait for the sun to be at its peak. You set that as 12 noon where you are, then you set off and you keep the clock at the time of where you left, and you measure when 12 noon is at your current location. And the time that the if you go halfway around the globe, it'll be night time on one side of the globe when it's 12 noon on the other side of the globe, so it'll be different time for noon as you go around in longitude if you note when it's 12 noon where you are and look at the clock that was keeping time from where you left.

The time difference tells you your longitude. So, one hour is about 15 degrees and longitude 24 hours is degrees, not a surprise. So, one minute of time difference is about quarter of a degree, which is about 25 kilometres. So, if you had a clock that could maintain time, in over a year in the harsh environment on a ship to within a minute, then you had an accurate enough navigation tool to win the longitude prize.

So now remember this is 25 kilometres of accuracy. My mobile phone is able to tell where I am within 10 meters, so more than more than 25, times more accurate. So, things have come a long way since then. The contender for this longitude prize was invented by a celebrated engineer John Harrison. It pitches John Harrison, the engineer as the hero and Newton and all the astronomers and physicists as the evil empire.

And it talks about not only. The history of science and technology, but a lot of the story about the personalities of the time as well. So, I heartily recommend you recommend this book to you. This is the clock that he made the first prototype clock that he made that was actually sent on a ship and got close, it got close to sort of winning the winning the longitude prize.

So, with a really good clock, you can measure where you are fairly accurately, within 25 kilometres at noon each day. But it you might want to know where you are at other times so you can check in at noon each day where you are, but it might be important you can travel a fair distance in 24 hours, and it might be important to know to know where you are at other times. So, to do that you use what's called inertial navigation. So, you predict where you are based on the direction you're traveling in and the speed.

So, if you know the direction you're traveling and you can use a compass to determine what direction you are, where you are relative to the magnetic north. For example, with this magnetic compass. And if you can measure your speed and interestingly the way that they measured speed at that time was, you can see illustrated in this picture here that, you basically had a rope, you had a log attached to that rope.

The rope had knots tied in it. You threw the log overboard, it stayed with the water. And as the ship moved and pulled the rope, you counted the how many knots in a certain amount of time. And then you wrote the knots in a logbook. So, to record how the log was going. So, this is where logs are knots come from. And that gave you the speed of the ship.

So, with the speed, the direction and how long you've been traveling you could then work out what distance you had travelled and chart that on a map and you could check in every 24 hours how accurate it was and updated. There are systems today that still use inertial navigation so if you need more accuracy than you can get with GPS if I need more than 10 meters of accuracy, you can use initial navigation between readings to give you a little bit more accuracy.

Hopefully this video will work. This is a video actually of that prototype at the Greenwich Museum in London and I've visited, and the clock has been running pretty much for years, so it's still running today. It's quite remarkable. You can see that it has pendulums, so it's got four actually, so there's, I can't see my mouse on top of this, but it's got basically pendulum's top and bottom that are counterweighted, and I'll just start that again, if I can.

And let me just start that again. The other point I wanted to make about this was the oscillations are happening about once a second, so this is what gives it its accuracy. It's got a very stable oscillator that's happening relatively quickly. So, the cycle time, the back-and-forth motion of those pendular about once a second. So, if we compare that, so the question then comes up, OK. So why is that more accurate than navigating by the stars?

So, if we think about the solar system as a giant oscillator, so basically this is like a pendulum, the planets go around the sun and they do that in a cyclic repeatable fashion. So, the cycle time for the earth going around the sun takes a year of defining a year. Other planets can take quite a lot longer. So, the reference scale here is about a year. The moon is also used for measuring time, so the moon takes about a month and the moon and month of the same word root.

So about 28 days for the moon to go through a cycle. So, if you use the planets and the moon, you're comparing a year time frame reference to a month time frame reference and so that gives you sort of days of accuracy.

However, as the earth is rotating, that takes precisely a day 24 hours. The clock made by John Harrison oscillates every second. So, if you're referencing a one second oscillator to a hour oscillator, then you get the precision that is required to sort of locate a ship within about 25 kilometres, and so this is significantly more accurate than navigating by the celestial bodies, the moon, and the planets, particularly because of the scale of the speed of oscillation.

I'm comparing all of those here. You can see that, OK, the clock is oscillating at a second. The earth rotation a day is 86, seconds. A lunar cycle, 28 days is about 2,, seconds and the orbit of the earth around the sun is about 31 million seconds and other planets can take 10s of years to go around and so that's can be significantly longer.

So, in principle using the Harrison clock and the day night cycle of the Earth as a reference should be about a million times more accurate than using the stars using, this the same sort of reckoning. This is what converts that the one second ticking of the pendulum into a much slower movement of the hands on the face that actually gives us a readout in time that we can understand.

And so, I'll come back to that later, this is really important with optical frequency combs and we'll get back to lasers as soon. So, what happened next? Well, by the end of his life, John Harrison had significantly improved the clock. So basically, this is his third prototype there was a fourth prototype as well, but this is the third prototype that was actually presented to the King of England at the time to collect the longitude prize.

But actually, James Harrison was never formally awarded this prize, Newton and all his cronies made sure that he wasn't able to collect this prize. And again, I encourage you read the book to see all the ends and outs of what happened there. He was eventually awarded all the money, but not the prize at age For more than years, so this is , this is what clocks look like then, looks a bit like a pocket watch, it is a bit bigger, it's about 13 centimetres across.

This is what pocket watches look like in the s, so not hugely different. It wasn't really till that with electronics that things got significantly better. It was always even, even with the sort of modern clocks, it was just faster and faster and more and more precise pendula, but there was still ticking at maybe five or six times a second, not more than that.

So the next major breakthrough really was the quartz oscillator, and you can see one here. This is an oscillator circuit. It looks like a tuning fork that basically the arms oscillate but it's but instead of being read out mechanically with cogs, it's actually read out electronically and so it really took the advent of electronics to for this innovation to take flight. It oscillates, the original one oscillated at about times a second, that then ramped up to about 30, ticks per second.

And that was enough for most watches to stay accurate to within about a second a day. So, this is about 30, times more accurate than the John Harrison clock that's ticking at once a second. This is 32, times a second. And this is for example is what drive, drive digital watches and I think what drives most quartz watches these days. So that's accurate enough to maybe get you within kilometres, or hundreds of meters, but many applications you want 10 meters.

My Google Maps, or if I want robotic surgery, I want a hell of a lot better than 10 metres for me. My self-driving car and maybe millimetres or submillimetre for robotic surgery. So, the most precise clocks basically went away from artificial oscillators and went back to natural oscillators, so the natural oscillators that we're using previously was the planets rotating around the sun, the earth rotating on its on its axis, the moon going around the earth.

But instead of looking out to the stars and the planets in the middle of the last century, people looked into to the atoms, and found that the caesium atom actually was a pretty good reference. So, the caesium atom has an electron that sort of has an electron orbit that if you ping it will oscillate very, very stably at about 9 gigs, about 9. And so, this is million times potentially more accurate than the John Harrison clock.

And this is what the original prototype looked like in , and there's been a sequence of atomic clocks developed since then that have been getting more and more and more accurate. These are very similar to the sorts of atomic clocks that are actually used, or the sorts of clocks that are used in satellites. Here's an example of the original Global Positioning System, actually is a US based satellite system.

There's the Galileo system and that I've got illustrated here. Here's a picture of people assembling the Galileo system. This is actually a pair of these atomic clocks, so you can see they're relatively large but small enough to go into a satellite. And so, there are dozens of these satellites in orbit around the Earth now and are available for providing positioning systems, and so the advertised positioning is premium service 1 meter.

You know general public 5 meters, so pretty good, pretty good. I pulled out this new story from that was reporting on the alarming rate of the clocks failing in the Galileo satellites. So they're smallish about this big. Also 1 meter accuracy good enough to get me here to RMIT, probably not good enough for other automation that you might want, so there's still a way to go.

The most accurate atomic clock demonstrated to date isn't based on caesium, it's based on strontium. Similar idea, it's not a microwave transition, it's an optical transition. So there are, you hit different atoms, they ring at different frequencies like tuning forks. But the strontium atom has a transition that is 9 terahertz, which actually is an optical frequency.

You can see that you can see this with your eyes, it's sort of red colour. But you can't measure the ticks directly. There are million million ticks per second, so it's million million times more accurate than the original Harrison clock. And this should be 40, times more accurate than the microwave atomic clock that was in the Galileo satellite. This should be enough to give you submillimeter accuracy positioning with something like GPS. Lasers were developed in the sort of s and 70s along with these atomic clocks and are the most precise way of generating an optical frequency and also measuring them and so, for example, this is a red laser, roundabout terahertz and I've just sort of illustrated that as, OK, if you have optical power it's all concentrated at a particular frequency.

This is one of the unique properties of lasers, they put all of their power at one frequency. But you can't actually measure those oscillations directly. Nothing can really go as fast as the as the direct oscillations of the optical wave. We can see the red light, but we can't see the electric fields moving at the very, very fast rate that they're moving. So, remember, this was a similar problem that John Harrison had with the one second oscillation and trying to turn that into something slower that actually meant something to us into turn the second text every second into minutes and hours and days that we could read off the face of the clock.

And so, we need something like a clockwork for lasers. You should be able to hear exactly the same tone for both of these oscillators. And what the person's going to do now is actually detune one of them so it's slightly different. So maybe that was a bit subtle. Let me just turn my sound down again. So, I'm not distracting myself.

If you have two tuning forks, and they're exactly in tune. If you hit them both, you don't hear anything, you just hear the sound. But if you slightly detune them, then what you can hear is beating between them so you can hear the difference in the frequency between them, so they can both be very high frequency.

In the case of the tuning forks, there were around about Hertz, so oscillations per second. You can't actually hear those individually, but when there were detuned, you could sort of hear something that was maybe 5 or 10 beats per second, you could sort of hear [imitates sound] sort of sound that you could actually count off. That's what the trick with the laser is. So, if you take two lasers that are pretty close together and listen to the beat between them. So, we have one laser one frequency.

If you have a comb of frequencies, so the lasers themselves are about terahertz, but the spacing between the lasers is about 10 gigahertz, so about 50 or 60, times lower in frequency between them. Then you can actually measure the beating in between the lines using a piece of electronics.

And so, this is essentially a clockwork for light. So, it allows you to turn the direct oscillation of a laser beam into something you can measure using electronics, and so this was a revolutionary advancement for atomic clocks.

The work that they were doing in publishing was around about and were awarded the Nobel Prize. Theodor Hansch started the company Menlo, that actually commercializes this system. And so, you can see this is an optical frequency comb system to about as big as I am. And this is you can buy system from them today and there's a number of these in various laboratories around the world.

And this is John Halls team at NIST went on to keep breaking the world record for the best atomic clocks and so this is the strontium clock that I mentioned before, which I think still holds the world record.

But you can see this is an enormous tangle of optical components on an optical bench. So, a very, very. So, it's way, way more accurate. These tools are extremely accurate. But there's still big there's still complex and remember the story about the atomic clocks failing on the Galileo satellites? There are some optical clocks on those satellites and they're also still fairly failure prone because they're made out of all of these discrete components.

So, we need something that's smaller, cheaper, and more robust really to really to make an impact. Our vision is that you should be able to take the frequency combs system, for example, like the one that Menlo is working on here, but integrated onto an optical chip using integrated optics. And this is the area that y team works on is basically sort of printing photonic tools onto the surface of chips using similar technology to electronics.

And if you can do that, you should be able to make optical frequency comb systems that are as robust and cheap and compact as you would find in a piece of consumer electronics. We showed two years ago, in May , that we could use these sorts of chips for doing ultra-high-speed transmission and this is what my previous talk was about. Since then, we've done a lot of work on trying to use this for optical neural networks.

But we've also set up a collaboration with Andre Luiten at Adelaide University, who set up a company QuantX, to do atomic systems for measuring time, but also measuring other things, magnetic fields, and movement. And so, we've just been awarded a project with Andre to explore trying to integrate some of the components of his system which you can see in the background there onto a photonic chip.

This is a little bit of a boring slide. These are all the standard things that you can measure and all the other things that you can measure can be made up from one of these things. So, you can measure length and weight and time, and you know electrical current. The second here is actually defined in terms of oscillations of that caesium atom. So, this is the definition of time as it stands at the moment. It's not just a measure of time, it actually defines time. What's interesting is that the oscillation of caesium atoms actually turns up in all of the other measurements as well, so this atomic oscillation that you can measure with a laser is actually you can measure anything with this tool in principle.

So just before I finish and I'm just about done, so there should be some time for some questions. Here's a few things that we've got in the pipeline. One of the things we're doing with optical frequency Combs is we're working with some researchers at the University of Technology Sydney. Irena Kabakova is pictured here. She uses lasers and frequency combs to measure the mechanical properties of materials and actually living tissue as well.

So, she uses laser light to excite vibrations in things like the cells of fish here and you can actually by measuring the different acoustic frequencies that are bounce back, you can actually determine what the mechanical properties are, how hard or rubbery the different parts are, and so you can essentially see the different parts of the fish here.

But you can also measure things like if tissue has become cancerous, it changes its mechanical properties and becomes stiffer for example. We're doing a lot of work with Advanced Navigation. They're in Australian company that sells navigation solutions to all of the automotive manufacturers and companies like Google and the thing that I particularly excel in is that inertial navigation. If you can work out what direction you're going in and what speed you're going at and how long you've been going there for, you can sort of chart a course of where you're going.

There are situations where you don't have GPS, for example under the water, the satellite signals don't penetrate the water and go under the water. So, if you want to have positioning systems under water, you need to use some other mechanism. In space, there's no GPS either, so if you want to have spaceships docking onto other spaceships, then you're going to need to have probably better than meter scale accuracy in terms of being able to position them.

And again, there's no GPS to let you know where you're going so. We're working on tools with them to try and miniaturize their navigation systems and make them more accurate and more robust so that they can be used in these sorts of applications. We're also working with astronomers. I can work with astronomers, like Jean Brodie, who has strong connections to the Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

Using that observatory if you can calibrate tools for measuring the spectra you can actually measure stars which are Suns in distant galaxies, or stars in our own galaxy. And if there are planets going around those stars, the stars will actually wobble in response to the planets going around them.

And as the stars are wobbling, you actually get Doppler shift, so the frequency changes ever so slightly and you can detect the presence of that planet from the shift and then you, there's a planet there, you can time your measurement. So as the planet goes in front of the sun, you can then actually do a spectral measurement of the atmosphere of the planet and so these are very, very small numbers of photons coming from these standards and very, very tiny shifts in spectral, so you really need a very, very highly calibrated source to measure this.

And this is one of the things we're using our frequency comes for. You can also use the same technique if you can precisely measure caesium atoms, you can precisely measure other atoms. For example, you can measure transitions in methane or carbon dioxide, and actually do measurements of the atmosphere. And so, we're looking at ways of monitoring emissions you know methane emissions, for example, from cows, and also improving agriculture.

So, for example using drones to monitor the emissions from fruit trees to see how healthy they are and whether the nutrients you're using are being effective and whether there are disease trees. We're basically calibrating the fibres by tapping very lightly on the ground here to see the vibrations turning up back in our lab, this is reported on the Internet.

You can use this for measuring things like cars going past you can the cars going past and trams, but you can also measure earthquakes, so they've picked up a number of earthquakes through the system in our lab over the last few months.

And you can also actually just use the sort of background noise and hum of the city to illuminate the bedrock and actually measure the shape of the bedrock around Melbourne and something a little bit like ultrasound, but on a on a city scale. So, you can use this for monitoring the integrity of tectonic plates, but also you for mining safety and mineral exploration. We've just set up a website to describe some of the things that we're doing. You can now find this at this web address here and there's more information about that story with the seismologist there.

And you can also feel free to ask me questions now or if you don't want to ask me now, feel free to send me an email or follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. I think this is sort of coming to the heart of the problem with the oscillator is it's OK. It's very easy to count oscillations like I can tell whether it's today or tomorrow. But it, but you're right, it's hard to pick exactly the noon day sun. I'm sure they had techniques for doing it. It's very similar to the astronomical problem of saying oh, now how far away are these two planets from each other?

It's very easy to see whether it's summer or winter. You can probably you can come up with ways of doing it, but it's just not as absolute as counting ticks, yeah. So that that's a really, a really good question. So just to repeat the question is given accuracy. Are there any surprises so that is there any is there any anything that's turned up the that we don't expect? I think the probably the answer is no, but the perhaps it is surprising that you can measure things like relativistic effects.

So, Einstein predicted also proved Newton wrong. Einstein predicted that the only thing that was constant was the speed of light. That everything else changed the there's space could expand and contract depending on how fast you were going and time itself would, it would expand and contract. So, the Galileo satellites, the clocks on the satellites are accurate enough to actually be able to tell the difference in the passage of time not the measurement of time. The actual passage of time is different for the satellite as it is orbiting around the Earth than it is for the base station that's talking to it.

So, you've got to constantly be correcting for who's time are we talking about? Are we talking about the time that the satellites experience or we're experiencing on Earth? This is all predictable like this is all, this all fits with relativistic mechanics, but even some of the tools we work on with advanced navigation, the way they work is as you rotate you have a coil of fibre, if you rotate it and even rotating it quite slowly, you can actually measure the difference in time it takes for the light to go one way around the coil then it does the other.

He has been showing photonic chip lasers, and so these are the sorts of things that you can just print out in their millions that are costs of cents. But they have sort of millihertz stability, so they are incredibly rate, like the most accurate. Accurate enough to sort of make these sorts of measurements on atomic clock, so the lasers themselves can be quite practical. This is only really happened in the last year or two that you've been able to do this in sort of manufacturing facilities, so the lasers are practical.

One of the big challenges is interfacing the lasers to the caesium atoms or the rubidium atoms. And so, this is a project that we're working on at the moment with Andre Luiten is OK how, if you're going to integrate all this stuff together in some cheap printed circuit, how do you, how do you get the atoms in there?

So, I guess science and technology again the engineers versus the physicists, I think there are some science opportunities like discovering habitable planets in other solar systems. That's a that's a big opportunity. Being able to measure precisely spectra using these sorts of tools, there's one particular piece of science called the sand gauge test, which is basically measuring has physics always been the same?

So, there's a there's a fine constant that sort of measures how physics works and by looking at very, very distant stars, you can sort of measure the beginnings of the universe and basically look at whether physics from that time. So, we're working with astronomers to do that. So that's some of the science that's enabled by this. Coming it back at the other end in terms of actually making these frequency combs, there's some quite sophisticated science and technology in actually generating the laser light in a way that is stable.

Basically, making those oscillators that are a stable as atoms. The atoms come ready made. You've got to actually physically make an oscillator on a chip that sort of competes with it so that you can use the two as a reference from each other, and there's some quite interesting nonlinear physics in the way the light goes round the on the chips to that actually sort of generates the frequency comb.

I mean, I must say I'm just talking of the top of my head, but I would think they would know the timing of that to easily within milliseconds. These are all very, very predictable systems. I mean, I should mention that there's an assumption built in that these things are cyclic. That basically the sorbet around the sun and the moon's orbit around the earth is cyclic.

It's not quite, each cycle is a little bit different there are wobbles and other things that go on, but they know about these and are sort of building them into their models as well. So, my off the top of my head, I would be surprised to discover it was, it wasn't milliseconds that they would know when particular things like the eclipse were happening. In terms of the different websites, I imagine they're targeting different locations.

Thank you very much Xing. I'll be around for a few more minutes if you want to just come and have a chat with me, I'd love to do that. Thank you everyone for participating and I look forward to seeing you at another distinguished lecture. Video blurb: From accurately tracking and estimating our Google Maps journeys to using biomedical imaging to gain detailed images inside our bodies, being able to measure things precisely underpins almost everything we do. In , two physicists were awarded the Nobel Prize for developing an approach — the optical frequency comb — to measure almost anything with unprecedented precision.

This approach gave us the GPS we use on a day-to-day basis, however, it was also expected to change the way we measure many other things, from the gases in our atmosphere to the discovery of earth-like planets in distant solar systems.

Seventeen years on, the world-changing potential of optical frequency combs remains largely untapped, mainly due to their large size and complexity. Photonic chip technology — technology that can miniaturise entire lab benches onto a chip the size of a fingernail — may hold the answer. Distinguished Professor Arnan Mitchell discusses how photonic chip optical frequency combs could lead to 3D analysis of living organisms, map and monitor the geological structure of our lands and oceans, and allow brain-like machine learning to transform the behaviour of autonomous drones and satellites.

Firstly, I would like to acknowledge the people Kulin Nations on whose unceded lands we are meeting on today and respectively acknowledge their elders past and present. So, today we shall hear from Distinguished Professor Sara Charlesworth who will deliver her lecture on Ageing Futures: quality care and decent work. This is part of the activities hosted by the Academy to fulfil its obligation as ambassador, advocator and thought leader for RMIT.

Before we start, let's just get through some housekeeping matters. This is a Teams Live event; you will not be able to directly ask any questions by microphone. So, let's just start the lecture by introducing the speaker. Distinguished Professor Sara Charlesworth research is on gender inequality in employment, and its various manifestations, including in gender pay, equity, sex, discrimination, gender-based violence, and the and precarious and insecure work. More recently, her research has focused on aged care sector.

She has also been an advisor to diverse government and private sector organisations as well as community and human rights bodies. So, without further ado, please join me to welcome Sara to deliver her lecture. Over to you, Sara. Many thanks, Xing.

And also like to acknowledge and pay my respects to the Woi wurrung and Boon wurrung language groups of the eastern Kulin Nation on whose unceded lands I'm currently located. And indeed, and thinking about better aging futures, we can learn a lot about the recognition of many older adults by First Nations peoples as elders, as people to be held in esteem and as wisdom holders of the community, rather than a problem to be dealt with away from prying eyes.

So, the Royal Commission's emphasis on caring as a relationship goes to the heart of good quality care. Today I'm going to focus on current and future challenges in creating and sustaining caring relationships in aged care, or what is known as long term care, and draw on recent research to address to address two key challenges. They are of ageism and the gendered undervaluation of aged care recipients and workers and ensuring that we have the necessary policy and regulatory architecture as well as work conditions and work organisations, work organisation to provide the conditions for quality care and decent work.

So, I'm drawing here on two main projects, the Decent Work Good Care project is a cross national study for aged care systems and as well as policy analysis and interviews across the four countries. I draw in particular on data gathered through a rapid ethnographic methodology.

Our version of this methodology made use of between 4 insider researchers who had national expertise in the particular country and two to four outsider researchers who had expertise in other countries systems. We use this in organizational case studies conducted over an intensive period of up to a week on the ground and gathered data from multiple sources, including through observations, shadowing workers, interviews, informal discussions, etc, with managers, workers and our clients and residents.

The Markets, Migration and Care project, led by Emeritus Professor Deborah Brennan, was essentially a multi-level policy and regulatory study of the ways in which migration, employment and care regimes intersect in Australia and New Zealand to shape in particular the migrant care worker experience. Today I draw in our analysis of migration regulation in the Australian context and analysis of available data sets.

And really, the central theme of these two projects has been exploring ways in which care quality in the formal aged care system can be undermined, or indeed enhanced by the conditions in which frontline workers provide that care. Researchers interested in the impact of employment care and migration regimes on the conditions of work, and care have focused on the complex interplay of institutions, policies, regulation, national and global conditions, and policy mechanisms that intersect in different ways in different national contexts.

And as I will highlight later in the lecture, gendered norms about what constitutes skilled in aged care are reflected in all three regimes. In Australia as elsewhere, Covid really revealed the fault lines in our age care system. And across the board, it's revealed the lack of dignity and respect accorded both aged care service users and workers in planning for the pandemic. There was a lack of adequate equipment and infection control training. A lack of clarity about accountability of federal and state governments, the safety regulator, and providers.

And the price of increasingly fragmented and precarious work with the lack of or limited access to paid leave became very obvious in terms of the workforce. While the rate of covid infections and the death toll of aged care residents was regularly reported on in Australia, there was really relatively little recognition of the impact of covid on workers except by the Royal Commission into aged care, quality, and safety.

So, we see in this excerpt here. The Royal Commission undertook a special inquiry into the impact of covid, and in that report in the introduction, they actually draw attention to the impact or some of the direct impacts of covid on aged care workers which I think is very important and once again they underscore the importance of the close relationships that care workers developed with residents in this case, but it also applies to home care. In Australia, if you can see here in the circle, that this is data actually on worker cases and deaths, and from a number of countries.

The number of covid infections recorded for workers in residential aged care, in fact slightly exceeded the number of covid infections among residents, but you wouldn't know that from the media. However, luckily, unlike in particularly the US and the UK, in Australia, residential aged care workers didn't die of Covid contracted at work. However, despite the fact that there are many more older adults or not come to this using home care services home care clients and homecare workers have not only been absent from most discussions of covid in aged care, but also in discussions of the future of the aged care workforce.

So, in this talk I want to focus mainly on home care in an attempt to bring this vital and indeed growing sector of formal care into view. But well before the COVID pandemic started, the Royal commission to age care, quality and safety recognized in its interim report the systemic substandard care in Australian aged care. And they note here key fundamental contributing factors to both unacceptable quality of care provided and also underscore the role unacceptable conditions of work play in the poor quality of care we have in our system in Australia.

And I'm going to attempt to pay you two very short excerpts, one from nursing home resident Merle Mitchell, who unfortunately died a little while ago, and a worker, Kathryn Nobes, who both talk about the impact of an adequate staffing on the quality of care.

I'd like to take this opportunity to revisit some of the evidence you've heard from a selection of our workforce witnesses so far. To do so, we ask the operator to play a video. And I'm just going to take you to the worker here if you could bear with me.

This is Kathryn Nobes. In my opinion, there was insufficient staffing at the facility. We are told that everyone is individual and has to be treated with respect. As keyworkers, we completely agree with this statement. However, we repeatedly found ourselves with such a heavy load workload that we just have to manage this situation that we can't give the residents the time that we would like.

So, these two excerpts, really, I think, give a flavour of the lived experience of key care recipients and workers in our system of our age care and I think the particularly the latter one underscores the disconnect between the rhetoric of person-centred care and the actual reality on the ground. So, I want to step back now a little and provide some background to our formal aged care system because in fact it plays a relatively small part in meeting the support needs of older adults.

Most older people who require support with the activities of daily living had that support provided by family members, overwhelmingly female partners, and daughters. Now, as you can see here, with population aging and increasing longevity, as people age large, there's a large and growing proportion who suffer at least one long term health condition.

This brings with it a complexity of needs for assistance with the activities of daily living as people age, especially personal activities with the greatest need overall for assistance with health care and mobility. And particularly for those aged 85 and over the need for assistance with self-care and cognitive and emotional tasks also rises sharply.

So, who uses long term care in Australia? In , over one million people received support from formal aged care services although some people used multiple programs more than once during the year. But as you can see here many more people used homecare than residential care. The Commonwealth Home Support Program is used by the most service users and it's a program that's supposed to provide entry level services and, importantly, is block funded. A smaller but growing number of people now use the Home Care packages program, which has a consumer directed model of individualized care where a fixed amount of money per annum is provided for individuals for care and support on the basis of their assessed needs.

Now this program was roundly critiqued by the Royal Commission as it's highly rationed, inflexible, and inadequate. There are , people still waiting for a package who had been assessed and approved for one. And last year 16, people died while still waiting to be allocated services for which they've been approved.

From the data here from the Aged Care Finance Authority, you can see the importance of the use of aged care services by women and over across the board women make up two out of every three service users and the use of services by women increases with age.

This actually puts our use of long-term care in cross national perspective and as I said, if we focus perhaps here on the figures, I've highlighted the most long-term care is used now by our people 80 years and over. Institutional care is residential, What we know is residential care in Australia. But in most OECD countries including the ones here, a greater proportion of our age care recipients use home care rather than institutional care.

And as you can see, Australia's use of residential aged care for the 80 plus population is higher in other countries. The shift to home care is much more advanced, for example, Sweden and New Zealand, as you can see there. In its final report, the Royal Commission set out what the community expects from aged care in Australia.

But this is a long way from the reality of what the community actually gets. Government policy could arguably be, could be argued to be essentially based on a palliative model. And to put it crudely, it's about keeping people comfortable till they cark it. But the community also gets is the real lack of accountability and this has been missing in action through successive federal governments and by providers particularly in accounting for the funding spent on the provision of care and there is really very little quality and safety oversight of the care that's delivered particularly in home care, as the Royal Commission notes here.

Ageism is an important norm and this submission to the Royal Commission from abroad based National Coalition points to the important role of ageism which attaches a lower value and greater stigma to old adults, particularly those with long term health conditions or disability and that's very much reflected in our systems of aged care.

The ageist engendered undervaluation of older service users, who, as I've already explained are increasingly female as they age, and the gendered undervaluation of the work performed by the frontline aged care workers lie at the heart of our current system. You'd have to say that the quality of available data on the aged care workforce is a national disgrace, and that's for two main reasons. The level of accurate detail available and the reliability of that available data, and the inadequacy of data really reflects the lack of attention historically given to this important and growing sector of the economy.

The result is a campus where the striking dragonscale solar canopies harvest every photon that hits the buildings; the energy piles store and extract heating and cooling from the ground, and even the naturally beautiful floras are in fact hardworking rootzone gardens that filter and clean the water from the buildings.

The Basque Culinary Center, a pioneering gastronomic institution, launched the international design competition for the new food innovation hub GOe in with the mission to bring food start-ups, researchers, and chefs under one roof. We are more than excited to take our architectural exploration of the world of Gastronomy to the next level with the work for The Gastronomic Open Ecosystem in San Sebastian.

Conceived as an architectural extension of the dramatic landscape and cityscape of San Sebastian, our proposed design liberates the ground and provides parks on the roof to invite the public life of the city to engage with the art and science of gastronomy.

Located on the heralded Camino de Santiago de Compostela — we believe that this architectural fusion of gastronomy and technology, city and landscape, building and park has the potential to become a destination in its own right for culinary pilgrims from around the world. The JRC building will house 12 research units and supporting functions as well as public and private outdoor spaces.

The international design competition kicked off in with 66 offices competing for the project, expected to break ground in BIG will work on detailed designs for the tallest building, a m-tall waterside tower, which is set to be made of five vertical blocks which twist around a central core, creating terrace spaces overlooking Canada Water. This year, in addition to the usual criteria, the jury also looked at how the project adapts to the consequences of the pandemic on the way people live, work, sho, and entertain themselves.

The first of its kind in the world, a new Neuroscience Center designed by BIG will bring together psychiatry and neuroscience under one roof to combine groundbreaking science and treatment of physical and mental brain diseases, spinal cord and nervous systems. Our design for the new Danish Neuroscience Center in Aarhus, replicates the most essential feature of the brain — the gyrification — to create more connections and space within limited confines. Established in , The Danish Neuroscience Center DNC has become a world-class research and treatment facility for understanding and treating the most complex, efficient and adaptive organ in our body — the brain.

The room will be available for bookings starting May BIG joins the international community in solidarity with the Ukrainian people, our Ukrainian and Russian colleagues, friends, and families in the region. In addition to becoming the first ground-up, purpose-built production soundstage in New York City, Wildflower Studios will be the first vertical film studio in the world. Click the link to read the full plan. BIG is a Copenhagen, New York, London, Barcelona and Shenzhen based group of architects, designers, urbanists, landscape professionals, interior and product designers, researchers and inventors.

The office is currently involved in a large number of projects throughout Europe, North America, Asia and the Middle East. Not least due to the influence from multicultural exchange, global economical flows and communication technologies, that all together require new ways of architectural and urban organization.

Like a form of programmatic alchemy, we create architecture by mixing conventional ingredients such as living, leisure, working, parking and shopping. By hitting the fertile overlap between pragmatic and utopia, we architects once again find the freedom to change the surface of our planet, to better fit contemporary life forms.

Bjarke defines architecture as the art and science of making sure our cities and buildings fit with the way we want to live our lives. Through careful analysis of various parameters from local culture and climate, ever-changing patterns of contemporary life, to the ebbs and flows of the global economy, Bjarke believes in the idea of information-driven-design as the driving force for his design process.

Named as Partner in , Douglass Alligood is a licensed architect in the State of New York, with over 37 years of industry experience. Douglass is involved in all phases of a project, from concept design through construction administration. At BIG, his responsibilities include code, zoning, life safety and accessibility compliance reviews, developing consultant scopes of work, consultant coordination, work plans, project scheduling, space planning, architectural detailing, building systems research, project budget analysis, construction administration, and client presentations.

Douglass is dedicated to mentoring younger staff members and has a passion for learning. He compliments his professional work through previous teaching assignments at the University of Florida, the New School of Architecture in San Diego and his alma mater the University of Virginia. She has worked closely with Bjarke Ingels across a wide range of projects and typologies such as the completed Danish Pavilion for the Shanghai Expo, the energy efficient skyscraper Shenzhen Energy HQ which just opened its doors, a low energy masterplan in Toronto, as well as residential projects in Copenhagen and Stockholm that enhance the urban fabric by creating shared social spaces.

Most recently she was the Design Leader for a residential complex in Hualien, Taiwan that seeks to blur the line between natural landscape and the built environment. He is partner-in-charge of competitions, masterplans and large-scale buildings in Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

A Senior Landscape Architect with a multi-disciplinary background in urban design, architecture and landscape architecture, Giulia led the proposal for Toyota Woven City, investigating how recent technologies will shape the future of cities in regard to new forms of mobility, sustainability, ecology and human connectivity.

Giulia first joined BIG in as project lead for the design of Islais Hyper-Creek proposal for the Resilient by Design competition, exploring solutions to adapt and protect the Bay Area from rain flooding, rising sea levels, and other environmental risks. Her approach brings focus to urban and natural systems, questioning and rethinking the traditional approach to landscape and city planning. She has extensive experience in resilient master-planning and public space design at various scales.

Jakob is also a Board member at Virgin Hyperloop One. After completing architectural studies at California Polytechnic University, Leon has worked with renowned offices in Japan, Scandinavia, and Portugal, designing a variety of cultural, residential and master planning projects around the globe, including the New Oslo Central Station and the Ginza Swatch Building in Tokyo.

Prior to his current role, he worked on a variety of healthcare, educational, and cultural projects around the globe. Beat has more than 20 years of experience as Project Architect and Designer and has sharpened his skills while working on many notable buildings in North America, Europe, and the Middle East. While at Frank O. Daniel joined BIG in and became Partner in Daria began her collaboration with Bjarke Ingels in Copenhagen in as a Press and Communication Manager, and over the course of the decade, Daria headed the team that decides where, when and how the practice disseminates its news, messages, branding, and personality.

Working in both Paris and Copenhagen for many years has given him an excellent knowledge of European culture and building practice. For five years, Jakob has worked closely with Dominique Perrault in participating on prize-winning projects, including the Palais des Sports de Rouen, which he led through all phases to construction, as well as the French Pavilion for the Venice Biennale for which he was Project Leader. Ole has vast experience in project management and controlling of both large and small-scale projects.

He has worked closely with Bjarke Ingels on a wide range of projects from the 8 House, a residential building in Copenhagen, to the conceptual design of a mobile gallery for the Tate Modern in London. Most recently he has been the design leader for the m tall high-rise CapitaSpring in Singapore and the LEGO House, which opened its doors to critical acclaim in With a background in energy efficiency research as well as undergraduate studies in economics, Brian brings additional focus on environmental and economic sustainability into all of his projects.

Agustin Perez-Torres first worked at BIG in Copenhagen from to , during which he collaborated with Bjarke on a number of international projects, including the 8 House. Agustin became a Partner in and is currently leading various design competitions, serving as the Partner-in-Charge for the Redskins Stadium in D.

C and the F. C Barcelona Camp Nou stadium competition. Prior to his design work, Agustin has worked as an architectural journalist and has assisted with major architectural exhibitions. Martin moved to New York City in and became a key member of the project team for the 60, m2 mixed-use development Vancouver House in Canada. Martin also worked at Studio Scholz, a design firm in Stuttgart, Germany, and completed various interior design projects independently.

Before studying architecture, he was originally trained as a carpenter. He also has experience working in various typologies such as masterplans, including Europa City in Paris and the winning proposals for cultural neighborhoods in both Qiddya and South Korea; high-rise tower designs, including the completed Shenzhen Energy Mansion in China; cultural designs, including the Adelaide Contemporary Gallery and the Museum of Fine Arts in Bilbao; and research-based projects, such as the new building vernacular for future life on Mars.

He is currently leading the design of CityLife Milan, a new 85, meter-squared development in Milan, Italy. Lorenzo received his Master of Architecture from the University of Florence, Italy, where he complemented his studies, with teaching positions in Architectural Design.

He has over 25 years of experience working in the design and construction of large-scale projects in the UK and the Middle East. In addition to this, Andy provides technical assistance to the Copenhagen and New York offices. He was the Architect-in-charge of The Leadenhall Building, a landmark commercial tower in the City of London financial district, seeing the project from planning to completion in German Sustainability Award, Nykredits Architecture Prize, Architizer Firm of the Year Award, London Design Awards, Gold Winner, ArchDaily, Housing Building of the Year, The International Highrise Award, Civic Trust Awards, Winner, Design Educates Award, Architectural Design, Scandinavian Green Roof Award, Holcim Awards Innovation Taskforce, Mies van der Rohe Award Finalist, European Prize of Architecture Philippe Rotthier, ArchDaily Cultural Building of the Year, Aga Khan Award for Architecture, ArchDaily Building of the Year, Concrete Industry Board Roger H.

Corbetta Award for Quality Concrete Merit, Best Tall Building meters Award of Excellence, Canadian Architect Award of Excellence, Danish Carpentry Award, Den Danske Lyspris, Winner, Snedker Craftsmenship Prize, PCI Harry H. Edwards Industry Advancement Award, London Design Awards, Silver Winner, London Design Award, Gold Winner, Detail Award Special Prize for Steel, Chicago Athenaeum International Architecture Award, Urban Land Institute Award for Excellence, Red Dot Best of the Best Award, Archiproducts Design Awards, Chicago Athenaeum Good Design Award, Architectural Digest Great Design Award, Archiproducts Design Awards Winner, Lighting, The presentation provides an overview of the past years worth of projects with an emphasis on the most recent work like the 8 House in Copenhagen, Denmark and competitions in Denmark, Greenland and New York.

Having been part of the jury, Kai-Uwe will be speaking just prior to the revelation of the prize winners. Kai-Uwe is a keynote speaker at the IncrediblEurope Summit; the theme of is The Influence of One, referring to the influence of one Europe as one global player as well as the influence of one individual to inspire change. The movement focuses on creative, innovative and entrepreneurial changemakers and the futures they influence. Architecture has the power to positively influence the quality of life for urban dwellers.

What are the architectural elements that make a building not just liveable, but life-enhancing? It is the field of communication and sharing ideas for young architects and architectural students. All the events are open to public. Thomas Christoffersen will be talking about BIG, its philosophy and its many projects, from concept to design. Fit Nation New Orleans will highlight innovative approaches from across the world and the U. From featuring stairs more prominently in buildings, to the creation of walkable neighborhoods, to making recreation spaces more accessible and appealing, speakers at Fit Nation New Orleans will share best practices in active design strategies and policies.

Visualization is the primary tool for the designer in order to illustrate ideas to other people. Architects are commonly using classical media such as drawings for that purpose, but is also experimenting with other medias and other ways of explaining architecture.

For BIG, visualization becomes not only a tool for producing and illustrating technical issues, but also an instrument to inform and educate. The AIA New York Chapter, in partnership with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, will host the sixth annual public conference to examine how design of the built environment creates opportunities for increasing physical activity and access to healthier food choices. This conference will bring together architects, planners, designers, developers, and public health professionals to address how building design and policy decisions can improve health outcomes in communities, helping to prevent chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers and asthma.

Kai-Uwe Bergmann will participate in the jury panel selecting the design for a temporary pavilion defined by sustainability in a holistic approach: social, economical, environmental and cultural. Kai-Uwe will be participating in the conference taking place from the 3rd to the 6th of August in Cali, Columbia. Hedonistic Sustainability — How can sustainable cities and buildings improve our quality of life?

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